PD_Harold VCSEL Laser Module



Harold VCSEL Laser Module




HAROLD/VCSEL is a full 3D model, computing the optical cavity modes, electrical drift-diffusion, heat-flow and electron-photon interactions. Building on Photon Design’s 30 year experience in both EM and laser diode modelling, this provides a comprehensive integrated design environment for a variety of the VCSEL variations being explored by industry today, including QW materials, current blocking apertures and more.



Modelling Scope

HAROLD/VCSEL covers the three main areas of modelling:




  • Built in full-vector 3D cavity mode solver
  • Scattering off oxide windows, contact apertures
  • Built-in far-field calculator
  • Built-in QW gain model, with databases for common materials InGaAsP, AlGaAs, InGaAlAs etc.



  • Self Consistent Poisson/drift-diffusion electrical model
  • Electrical Leakage



  • Full 3D thermal heat-flow model
  • Joule(I2R) heating, contact resistance heating
  • Recombination, FCA, IVBA heat sources


VCSEL Editor

Starting from your epitaxy recipe our updated user interface in Harold/VCSEL will make it easy to design your VCSEL, with features for easy definition of DBRs and positioning of contacts and oxide layers.

VCSEL device editor: a base layer structure is modified via the use of etch and grow processes to allow careful placement of current-blocking oxide apertures (displayed in the red box) and ring-contacts.


Simulation Results

Harold/VCSEL is capable of generating a wide variety of simulation results, giving a detailed insight in device behaviour. These include:

- Temperature, heat sources

- Current and carrier density

- Optical mode/far-field


Detailed Cross-Sectional and Plan Profiles

Profile of optical mode (left) and temperature (right) inside the cavity

Far-field intensity profile of VCSEL output

Current density profile showing cross-section and plan views of current flow through oxide layer aperture


Steady State Device Results

LIV Curves

- Temperature and dissipated heat source powers

- Recombination currents

- QW gain, carrier density, FCA/IVBA

VCSEL LI curves at different ambient temperatures


Time-Domain Results Spectra

- Time evolution of optical power and carrier density

- Laser output optical spectra (power spectral density), RIN spectra

- Lasing linewidth

Time-evolving radial carrier density profile for laser switch-on


Laser output optical spectrum


Coming Soon!

As the development of Harold/VCSEL continues, we look forward to adding further features and functionality in subsequent releases, including:

- Side current injection

- Support for wafer bonding

- Tunnel junctions

- Time-domain dynamics/modulation response spectra

- Multi-mode operation

- And more...

Please contact us if you are interested in these or have any further feature requests.


2020-02-25 回上頁




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